One human study investigated impact of apple vinegar intake on the body weight and fat in obese subjects. After 12 weeks of consumption, vinegar significantly reduced waist circumference, visceral (abdominal) fat, and body weight, in comparison with the placebo. This study supports use of apple cider vinegar in prevention of metabolic diseases, by reducing obesity.1 Another study, in healthy subjects, demonstrated that vinegar intake may increase satiety, and, thus, prevent weight gain. The same study showed that vinegar, when added to high-glycemic load meals reduced the postprandial glycaemia.2
- Kondo T, Kishi M, Fushimi T, Ugajin S, Kaga T. Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73(8):1837-1843.
- Johnston CS, Buller AJ. Vinegar and peanut products as complementary foods to reduce postprandial glycemia. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105(12):1939-1942.
Insulin resistance is highly prevalent condition nowadays. It represents inability of insulin to regulate blood glucose levels, which may lead to increased secretion of insulin, and possibly to development of diabetes. Also, insulin resistance is considered to be one of the etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and other ovulatory disorders. One study investigated impact of apple cider vinegar intake on ovulatory function and insulin resistance in 7 patients with PCOS. The participants took 15 g of vinegar per day for 90 to 110 days. At the end of intervention period, ovulatory menstruation was observed in 4 participants. Also, decrease in insulin resistance index was observe in 6 of them.1
- Wu D, Kimura F, Takashima A, Shimizu Y, Takebayashi A, Kita N, Zhang G, Murakami T. Intake of vinegar beverage is associated with restoration of ovulatory function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013;230(1):17-23.
Besides benefits of apple cider vinegar ingestion, its external application has also been investigated. One placebo controlled study included 80 varicosity patients conventionally treated (by doctor prescription). Participants were allocated to apply apply apple cider vinegar to the leg are with varicosity or to serve as a control for one month. At the end of intervention period, treated group experienced grater improvements in symptoms like cramps, pain, and weight feeling in leg in comparison with the control. This study suggested that apple cider vinegar could be applied as successful adjunct therapy in varicosity patients.1
- Atik D, Atik C, Karatepe C. The Effect of External Apple Vinegar Application on Varicosity Symptoms, Pain, and Social Appearance Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:6473678